Teaching Learning Process: The teaching-learning process is as old as human beings on earth. With the passage of time, it has undergone revolutionary change. If the teaching-learning process is effective, then the child is able to make the best use of the things in the world around him. If a child has not learned the art of living then he will unable to establish the social relationship with his fellows. So, the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes which enable us to adjust ourselves in an effective manner to the environment may be said to be the aim of teaching-learning.
Teaching-learning has four aspects; teacher, student, learning process and learning situation. The teacher-student and the teacher. The process is the interaction between the student and the teacher. The relationship of teaching and learning may be explained with the help of a diagram.
Levels of Teaching and Learning Process: There are four levels of the teaching-learning process. They are briefly described below :
1. Autonomous Level of Teaching – Learning: This level of teaching-learning is based on the educational philosophy which believes that human beings are inherently active. They generate ideas from within themselves. Education should not be imposed by out side agents but on the other hand it should be child-centred. The teacher should promote each students’ heightened intuitive awareness of himself by creating an appropriate environment.
2. Memory Level of Teaching: Learning means committing factual information to memory and nothing else. If we examine our traditional teaching as it is being carried out we find that in majority of the cases it operates at memory level. The teacher gives factual material which the students memorise without understanding it. This type of teaching seems to be based either on mental discipline theory which emphasises the importance of vigorous exercise for the development of mental faculties or S-R conditioning theory of learning in which bondage is formed between the stimuli and responses without involving any purpose.
3. Understanding Level Conveys: Different meanings as for example, to perceive the meanings or grasp the idea or to comprehend, to be thoroughly familiar with or to apprehend the character or nature of, to comprehend the manings of words as a language to clearly grasp as a fact or realise.
4. Reflective Level of Teaching –Learning: Reflective level of teaching-learning involves the process of problem-solving. Cognitive-field Psychology, which defines learning as the gaining of new insights or understanding or changing old ones by structuring and restructuring of life space, has made a valuable contribution in the process of problem-solving. Reflective learning occurs only when there is a problem in the situation. The student examines the facts and generalisation to solve the problem.
Knowledge of Children from Diverse Context: In any school, the children may be so distributed that a majority of them may be classified as average or normal. There may also be a few children who may be found to deviate mentally, socially, educationally or physically from the normal children to quite an appreciable extent. Such children require special educational care and their adjustment problems have to be tackled in a specialized manner.
Children or people who are bright in intelligence, sharp in memory, excellent in reasoning and logical power and quick in decision making are termed as gifted children.
Characteristics of Gifted Children:
1. They can be easily identified with their superior general mental ability or intelligence.
2. Gifted children have better power of insight, problem solving and creativity.
3. Their general physical health, growth rate, physical efficiency, motor ability and nervous promptness are superior to the average children.
4. They exhibit better emotional control and maturity in making effective adjustment with the situation.
5. Their volitional aspect of mind is very strong. They are self-confident, have strong desire to explore with high degree of motivation.
Education for the Gifted: Gifted children need special educational provision for the development of their special talent. They should not be given the same kind of education designed for the average children. So, the following points are important in this regard-
· Teacher should try to observe and identify their native, interest, abilities and talent and
make educational provision for them accordingly.
· An up-graded,improved and additional course of study may be assigned to them with a view to
make them intellectually busy.
· Curriculum should be broad based to give them a wider view of knowledge on different faculty.
· Specialist teacher may be appointed and distinguished person invited to give educational
instruction and guidance for development of their talent.
· School should tryto motivate them towards specialisation by providing better library and
· Programme of social work or community work should be organised for them with a view to
develop the sense of co-operation.
Meaning of Creativity: According to Guilford, creative thought means divergent thinking and un creative means convergent thinking. convergent thinking is measured by means of intelligence tests which include items like remembering, recognition and manipulation of some concrete material. These traditional tests do not measure the creativity or emergence of originals in children.
On the other hand Torrence has defined creativity “as a process of becoming sensitive to problems, deficiencies, gaps of knowledge, missing elements, disharmonies and so on, identifying the difficulties, searching for solutions, making guesses or formulating hypotheses about the deficiencies, testing modifying and retesting them and finally communicating results.”
Characteristics of Creative Children: Following are some of the important characteristics of creative children-
1. Courageous in convictions: The creative child shows strong conviction in his beliefs and values. He can go beyond socially conformist behaviour.
2. Curious: The creative child is curious to know more and more about his environment.
3. Independent in judgement: The creative child can take independent judgement in crucial matters.
4. Independent in thinking: They are independent in thinking about the problem of various types.
5. Becomes pre-occupied with tasks: When he starts a task, he completely absorbs himself in that task.
6. Intuitive: He develops intuition in his problems.
7. Willing to take risk: He has risk taking capacity.
Educational provision for the Creative Children: Following points are important for development of creativity among children-
1. Imagination: Students should be given full freedom for the development of their imagination because imagination helps in the development of creativity.
2. Creative expression and arts: School can develop creativity through artistic expression by providing material. Artistic expression gives an opportunity to originate new ideas.
3. Use of analogy: Sometimes children fail to understand problems directly but when that problem is taught with the help of a comparable situation, it becomes clear and understandable. The teacher should make use of analogies to clarify difficult concepts in teaching.
4. Thinking over consequences: Children should be encouraged to think on the consequences of an acton. The mental exercise will be helpful in the development of creative thinking.
5. Divergent thinking: Children should be encouraged to think different approaches to a problem. Divergent thinking develops creativity.
Specially Abled Children: Some students are physically and mentally handicapped but in particular aspect they can show better performance. So, this type of children are known as specially abled child. They are unable to proceed in every aspect but in particular activity they are found to be expert. For example, a blind can sing a song.