Teaching as planned Activity: Teaching is a process of planning. A teacher without planning his lesson should not go to the class. Before going to the class he must have some plan for his lesson. What to teach and how to teach, what material he is going to use etc. are known to him.
1. A good lesson helps teacher to bring self confidence in him.
2. It can help a teacher to meet the needs of the students appropriately.
3. Lesson plan help a teacher to get immediate feedback.
4. With the help of lesson plan a teacher can create motivation and interest in the mind of the students.
5. A teacher can prepare the educational aids before going to the class through the help of lesson plan.
Therefore, every teacher must have some planning before entering the class room. He should not teach haphazardly the lesson. He always should teach systematically and take the help of lesson plan for classroom teaching. Because, this lesson plan helps to give the cognitive, affective and conatiVe aspect of experience to students. So, teaching is known as a planned activity.
Phases of Teaching: There are three phases of teaching.
They are described below:
1. Pre-Active phase: Before actual classroom teaching, a teacher has to perform many tasks. These tasks include such as preparing lesson plans, arranging furniture and equipment within the classroom, studying test reports, reading sections of a textbook and thinking about the aberrant behaviour of particular students. These activities are very crucial to the teacher’s performance during regular teaching sessions.
Pre-active behaviour is, more or less deliberative. The teacher at this stage hypothesises, about the possible outcome of his action. As the teacher decides what textbooks to use or how to group the children for reading or whether to notify student’s parents of their poor performance, his behavour is at least analyzable.
Pre-Active phase of Teaching: Following operations or substages are involved :
(i) Forming or fixing up goals.
(ii) Taking decisions about the content.
(iii) Managing or sequencing appropriate means and ways of presentation.
(iv) Deciding about appropriate strategies and tactics of teaching.
(v) Developing teaching strategies for the specific subject matter.
2. Inter-Active phase: This is actual classroom teaching and this goal is already set. In the interactive setting, the behaviour of the teacher is more or less spontaneous. Research suggests that things happen quickly during the teaching session.
(Teaching operations at pre-active phase)
Many teachers try to devote sometime alone with individual students but the teacher-student dialogue is usually public rather than private when a teacher is alone with a student, he is not faced with the problem of control and management that frequently absorbs a major portion of his energies in a group setting. There is a greater sense of physical and psychological intimacy between the teacher and the student during individual sessions than when the teacher is responding to the class as a group. The task of keeping pupils involved may entail explanation, demonstration definition, and other logical operations that have come to be thought of as the heart of teaching.
3. Post-Active Phase: The post-active phase concerning evaluation provides necessary feedback to the teacher and the students in bringing desirable improvement in their performance. It is related with both teaching and learning. In short, the following operations are involved at the post-active stage of teaching.
(i) Assessing the suitability of the objectives determined.
(ii) Deciding regarding reteaching the content or further taking up the content.
(iii)Assessing the suitability of the instructional material and aids.
(iv) Assessing the impact of the classroom environment and effecting desired changes.
Lecture Method: The lecture is also a method of exposition. According to James Michael Lee, The lecture is a pedagogical method whereby the teacher formally delivers a carefully planned expository address on some particular topic or problem. It can be used:
1. To motivate: While starting the study of a new unit or topic, the teacher, can sometimes present the outstanding aspects effectively in a lecture. Ile can indicate some of the significant persons, events and problems and thus arouse the curiosity of the pupils.
2. To clarify: When, in the study of a unit, problem or topic the pupils are troubled by the same difficulty, the lecture can be given to save time. A few minutes of lecturing can help to clarify matters.
3. To review: Through lecture, the teacher can very well guide the pupils by summarising the main points ofa chapter or unit and indicate some of the important and significant details.
4. To expand contents: A lecture is one of the best ways of presenting additional material.
1. Lecture gives the teacher an opportunity to come in immediate contact with the pupils.
2. Lecture can be adapted to the abilities, interests, previous knowledge and needs of the pupils.
3. Lecture gives the pupils training in listening and taking rapid notes.
4. Lecture saves time.
5. Good lectures stimulate brighter pupils. They are prompted to put in more work.
1. It makes the learner a passive agent in the learning process.
2. The lecture lessens the opportunity for the pupils to learn by doing as readymade material is presented to the pupils. 3. The lecture is an inefficient teaching tool in the development of attitude formation and process outcomes.
4. The lecture does not guarantee that the pupils will understand its contents.
5. The average high school may not have sufficient attention span to attend closely to a full forty minutes lecture.
Demonstration Method: This method involves the presentation of a pre-arranged series of events to a group for their observation. This is accompanied by explanatory remarks. This method is most commonly used in science and the fine arts. It can be used in giving information, training and knowledge. The demonstrations should be selected both in terms of the needs of the observers as well as the ideas. materials, procedures or techniques which can be observed profitably. The physical environment should be carefully arranged to assure a smooth demonstration, clear vision and hearing by observers.
Advantages: 1. The demonstration can open a students’ eye to a new world of understanding. It will help him to acquire knowledge in first-hand form.