Dimensions of Child Development (Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, Social and moral)
Child Development & Pedagogy is one of the important Subjects in the Assam TET Syllabus, from where 30 questions were raised in the exam. To get the full mark in this chapter, we have to get the concept from Child Development & Pedagogy, how this entire process works & what are the possible questions that may raise from here. If you get the core of the chapter then we can solve any question here.
Various dimensions of child development are discussed below
1. Physical Development (Early childhood) (2 years to 6 years): Growth in physical dimension during the period of 2 to 6 years of age is not as accelerated as that experienced in infancy. Legs growth is rapid and represent about half of one’s total height. The head growth is slow and trunk growth is intermediate. The height and weight of the child are affected by a number of variables such as height of parents, nutrition and illness, etc.
Physical Development (Later childhood) (6 years to 12 years): There is slow increase in weight and height during late childhood. Children are free from diseases at this age. Physiologically the girls at the age of 11 arc a full year ahead of the boys. Shedding of milk teeth and growth of permanent teeth changes the appearance of the mouth, flattening of forehead, sharpening of the nose, broadening of the chest, and motor skills development through play.
2. Cognitive or Intellectual Development (During early childhood): Following are the major characteristics of intellectual development during early childhood—
(a) Child begins to form concepts of physical and social reality.
(b) By the age of six the child develops a perception of size, shapes, colour, time and distance etc.
(c) Memory increases at a very rapid speed.
(d) Creativity develops in children and imagination begins to grow.
(e) Thinking and reasoning develop in relation to concrete material.
During Later Childhood: The following changes in intellectual development occur during the period six years to twelve years of
(a) The child begins to make clear destination between himself and outer world.
(b) Learning and memory become more efficient because the child enter formal schooling.
(c) Capacity for logical thinking increases. The child becomes increasingly efficient in the selection, developing and applying cognitive operations in relation to concrete objects.
(d) Interest in science stories and mechanical operations reaches its height at this age.
(e) Courage and loyalty increase.
3. Emotional Development During Early Childhood: Emotions have the following effects on the developing individual—
(i) Emotions give us energy to face a particular situation in life.
(ii) Emotions work as motivator of our behaviour.
(iii) Emotions add pleasure to our every day experiences in life.
(iv) Emotions maintain our interest in work.
(v) Emotions influence our adjustment in society.
During Later Childhood: Following are characteristics of emotional changes during later childhood—
(i) Early pattern of emotional expression changes. By the end of late childhood the child learns to control his emotional experession in socail situations.
(ii) The emotional responses of the child become less diffuse, random and undifferentiated.
(iii) Emotions are expressed even in the absence of concrete objects.
(iv) Emotions are most contagious during childhood because children are highly suggestible and dependable on others.
(v) Parental favoritism causes jealously in childhood.
4. Social Development (During early childhood): A child is born in a social environment where his personality development is shaped in accordance with the norm of the society. Following are the characteristics of social development.
(i) Feeling of autonomy develops in children.
(ii) Social environment expands beyond the home.
(iii) They learn to co-operate with others and make friends on shared interests and similar personality traits.
(iv) Children take interest infairy tales and animal stories.
During Later Childhood: Following are the characteristics of social development during later childhood—
(i) It is the period when children form peer group of their own sex and remain outside the home.
(ii) Complaints of disobedience are highest in percentage during this period.
(iii) Children reject adult standards and circle of friends widens.
(iv) Delinquency begins more during this period than adolescence.
5. Moral Development: Moral senses and moral sentiments are also developed during the childhood stage. But these basically depend on home life. Because moral way of life and standard maintained by the elder members may have its relative effects on the child. Moral values’and aesthetic senses of right and wrong, fairness and ugliness may develop moral,attitude in him.
Development of Language (During early childhood and later childhood): The language development of the infante begins from birth cry. The ten-month-old child is able to use one word but by the end of the first year, his vocabulary increases to 3 or 4 words. Good home environment and early childhood training help in the development of vocabulary. It has been reported by several studies that there is a positive correlation between intelligence and language development.
Langauge development during the later childhood stage is clearly visible. At this stage the child is in a position to exercise his power of memory, attention, thinking and imagination and can solve problems intelligently. He can pay attention to and develop interest in reading, writing and arithmatical activities. He also tries to learn new knowledge and experience through imitation.
Individual Differences: All the living organisms whether human beings or others, differ in size, shape, appearance, speed of reaction and innumerable other aspects of behaviour. Some are healthy and jolly while others are weak and irritable. Some learn quickly and others slowly, some can remember well and others forget etc. In this way there exist differences in individuals. This is known as individual differences.
Individual Differences in various areas :
(i) Differences in Interests and Aptitudes: There exist great variations among the individuals in relation to their specific tastes and interest. Some people take interest in meeting others, attending social functions and are very fond of picnics and group excursions; others feel happy in solitude, avoid social gatherings and are interested in meditation or enjoy company of books. Like that, people are found to have a different aptitudes. For example some have mechanical aptitude, while the others have scholastic, musical or artistic aptitudes.
(ii) Differences in Intelligence: People differ in intellectual abilities and capacities like reasoning and thinking powers, power of imagination, creative expression, concentration etc. In the field of general intelligence also the Gind tremendous differences between individuals. All the people have,not equal general mental capability. On the basis of this differences they are usually classified as idiot, imbecile, moron, border line, normal, bright, very superior and gifted.
(iii) Differences in Habits, Beliefs and Opinions: Individuals are found to possess varying habits towards different activities. Some people may develop habits in reading or writing,
while others may have a habit.