Child Development & Pedagogy is one of the important Subjects in the Assam TET Syllabus, from where 30 questions were raised in the exam. To get the full mark in this chapter, we have to get the concept from Child Development & Pedagogy, how this entire process works & what are the possible questions that may arise from here. If you get the core of the chapter then we can solve any question here.
Concept of Personality: Generally personality is the totality of one’s behaviour towards oneself and others as well. It includes everything about the person, his physical, emotional, social, mental and spiritual make-up. It is all that a person has about him.
According to Watson, “personality is the sum of activities that can be discovered by actual observations over a long enough period of time to give reliable information.”
Allport defines, “personality is a dynamic organisation within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment.”
According to Jung human personality can be divided into three types. Extrovert, Introvert and Ambivert.
Extrovert Personality: An extrovert is socially adaptable and interested in people. He likes to make friends and very soon creates a circle of friends around him. He prefers working in a company with other people, is talkative and fund of talking. He is self-assertive and generally takes things lightly. He has a keen sense of observation and is attentive. Generally, reformers and social workers are extroverts in their nature.
Introvert Personality: An introvert limits his acquaintance to a few. This person is very conservative and suspicious of the motives of others. Introvert people are not social and do not want to make friends. They always avoid embarrassment and public speaking. They are reserved, self-centred, introspective, absent-minded, remains worried and are always daydreaming. Philosophers, Poets and Scientists are generally introverts in their nature.
Ambivert: Ambivert type of personality is in between the extrovert and introvert. The behaviours of these personalities are balanced. Their psychic energy is partially directed inwards and partly outwards. They are interested in their own thoughts and emotions and also in other persons and their actions. Most of the common people are belong to this ambivert type.
Ernest Kretschmer, a German psychiatrist, classified human beings on the basis of physical constitution. He attempted to establish a relationship between personality characteristics and body build.
According to Kretschmer human personality can be divided into four. They are—
(a) Pyknic type: The characteristics of this type of personality are popular, stocky and full-chested.
(b) Asthenic: This type of personality includes the characteristics of weak, tall, sensitive and thin.
(c) Athletic: These type of people are generally strong.
(d) Dysplastic: The people who has the personality of Dysplastic are general mixed type characteristics.
Sheldon’s type: DE William H. Sheldon, an American Surgeon, divided all human beings into three broad categories of physical dimensions and their corresponding temperamental characteristics. He believes that the physical structure of the body is the determinant of personality characteristics.
His division is—
(a) Endomorphic (soft, round): They have the temperament of Viscerotonic (sociable, extrovert affectionate) love of physical comfort.
(b) Mesomorphic (muscular and strong): They have the temperament of Somatotonic energetic and muscular, love ()frisk and chance.
(c) Ectomorphic(thin and tall): They have the temperament of cerebrotonic (fearful, artistic, introvert and restrained).
Spranger’s type: E Spranger, German Philosopher, divided human beings, on the basis of interests, in the following categories—
(a) Theoretical: Persons who are theoretical in nature, neglect social and political participation.
(b) Economic: Those persons who are interested in money hoarding.
(c) Aesthetic: Those persons who are lover of beauty and are busy in sensuous gratification.
(d) Social: Persons who arc interesting social activities.
(e) Political: Dominating and desirous of power.
(f) Religious: Persons who devote themselves to religious activities and mysticism.
Several factors influence the shaping of our personality. These are discussed below-
1. Heredity: There are some hereditary factors that affect our personality. Some characteristics like tall or short, good health or ill health, quickly irritable or patient are generally inherited by birth. Which influences our personality to great extent. These are known as genetic or hereditary factors of personality.
2. Culture: Culture and values have great inference over our personality. People born in different cultures tend to develop different types of personalities which in turn significantly inference their behaviours. India being a vast country with a rich diversity of cultural backgrounds provides a good study on this. For example, Punjabees are more diligent and hard-working, people from Bengal are more creative and with an intellectual bend and the likes.
3. Family Background: Family background like socioeconomic status, number of children in the family and birth order, education of parents etc. influence the shaping of personality to a great extent. The first child of a family usually has different experiences than the second and third children. Members in the family basically mould the character ofall children, almost from birth, in several ways by expressing and expecting their children to conform to their own values, through role modelling, and through various reinforcement strategies such as rewards and punishment which are judiciously dispensed.
4. Environmental Factors: Environmental influence begin since the time of the conception of the child in the womb of the mother. Mother’s mental, physical and emotional conditions influence the development of fetus in the womb. The external environment starts from the time of the birth of the child.
Man is a social animal. He is born in a social set-up. All men are born alike with respect to their biological need. Differences are created by social environment in which needs are fulfilled. Physical and geographical conditions of the environment play an important role in shaping the personality of human beings.
Meaning of Behavioural problems: From the psychological point of view, that behaviour that hampers acquiring knowledge and social interaction are known as problem behaviour. When the behaviour of a thud is not acceptable by society that type of behaviour is problem behaviour. Behaviour like become angry, lying etc. are problem behaviour. According to Elizabeth Hurlock “behaviour which hampers the child in his healthy adjustment are known as a mainly behavioural problem.”
Type of Behaviour problem: According to psychologist behaviour problems occurs due to some physical cause and some mental cause. Physical behavioural problems can be noticed in the family environment in the case of a child. These are restlessness, biting nails, facial twitching, scratching head, bedwetting, causing accident lying, smoking etc. on the other hand mental behavioural problems are inferiority, aloneness, shamefulness, too much excitement, too much selfishness, daydreaming, unmindfulness etc.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The children of the oppositional defiant disorder can also be included in the problem child. These type of children become more problematic for the parents. Parents usually unable to control these children.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioural or defiance disorder defined by chronic aggression, frequent outbursts and a tendency to ignore requests and purposely irritate others. An oppositional, defiant child will often lose his temper, argue with adults, actively defy requests or rules set by adults, deliberately annoy people, and blame others for misbehaviour. He will engage in angry, violent and disruptive conduct directed at the adults in his life, parents-teacher, physicians and other authority figures. He may seem to feel most comfortable in the midst of a conflict, which is upsetting and exhausting for everyone involved even the child himself.
The symptoms of ODD may look different for girls and boys in whom the conditions is more common. Boys with ODD tend to be more physically aggressive and have explosions of anger while girls often lie, refuse to cooperate and otherwise express symptoms in indirect ways. ODD is usually diagnosed in early childhood. The most common symptoms of ODD includes—
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type. It is characterised by difficulty paying attention, excessive activity and acting without regards to consequences, which are otherwise not appropriate for a person’s age. Again inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are also signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A person with ADHD has diferences in brain development and brain activity that affect attention, the ability to sit, still and self-control. ADHD can affect a child of school, at home, and in friendships.
Signs of ADHD: Kids with ADHD may have signs from one, two, or all three of these categories-
(a) Inattentive: Kids who are inattentive (easily distracted) have trouble focusing their attention, concentrating, and staying on task. They may not listen well to directions, may miss important details and may not finish what they start. They may daydream or dawdle too much. They may seem absent-minded or forgetful and lose track of their things.
(b) Hyperactive: Kids who are hyperactive are fidgety, restless and easily bored. They may have trouble sitting still, or staying quiet when needed. They may rush through things and make careless mistakes. They may climb, jump or rough house when they shouldn’t without meaning to, they may act in ways that disrupt others.
(c) Impulsive: Kinds who are impulsive act too quickly before thinking. They often interrupt, might push or grab. and find it hard to wait. They may do things without asking for permission.. take things that aren’t theirs, or act in way that are risky. They may have emotional reactions that seem too intense for the situation.
The right treatment helps ADHD improve. parents and teachers can teach younger kids to get better at managing their attention. behaviour and emotions. As they grow older. kids should learn to improve their own attention and self-control.
Conduct Disorder: Conduct disorder is a group of behavioural and emotional problems that usually begins during childhood or adolescence. Children and adolescents with the disorder have a difficult time following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. They may display aggressive, destructive and deceitful behaviours that can violate the rights of others. Adults and other children may perceive them as ‘bad’ or delinquent, rather than as having a mental illness.
Genetic and environmental factors may contribute to the development of conduct disorder.
Genetic Causes: Damage to the frontal lobe of the brain has been linked to conduct disorder. The frontal lobe is the part of the brain that regulates important cognitive skills, such as problem-solving, memory, and emotional expression. The frontal lobe in a person with conduct disorder may not work properly, which can cause. among other things :–
– a lack of impulse control
– a reduced ability to plan future actions.
– a decreased ability to learn from past negative experiences.
Environmental factors: The environmental factors that are associated with conduct disorder include-
– Child abuse
– A dysfunctional family
– Parents who abuse drugs or alcohol.
Causes of problem Behaviour children: The causes of problem behaviour of children mainly can be divided into two types. These are described below:—
(1) Hereditary Factors: Every child born with certain inborn hereditary qualities. If there are some problems in this. then his behaviour may become problematic. His many characteristics are dependent on the combination of the genes of his parents. Therefore, he is born with his own individualistic mental and physical structure, which is different from other children.
(2) Environmental Factors: Environment influence greatly in the psychophysical development of child. In the environment, child use to fulfil his needs. So the home environment should be very congenial for the development of the child. A healthy environment should be established at home so that healthy adjustments can be made. If there is a lack of security. The conflicts between parents. economic poverty etc. in the family environment then problem behaviour may have occurred.
On the other hand, the unhealthy educational environment of the school also can create problem behaviour among child. Unattractive school building. lack of co-curricular activities. etc. may also create problematic behaviour among the child.
( 1 ) Parents should creep a healthy environment in a family. Emotional security should be given by the parents to their child.
(2) Physical needs of the children should be fulfilled by the parents.
(3) Different types of play materials should be provided to the children for physical development.
(4) An attractive school environment should be established. Appropriate facilities should be provided for games and sports.
(5) All the adolescence stage vocational and educational guidance should be given.
(6) Children should be given opportunities for self-expression.
Adjustment Mental Health and Hygiene, Concept of
Meaning of Adjustment: Adjustment means reaction to the demands and pressures of social environment imposed upon the individual. The demand may be external or internal to whom the individual has to react, observe the life of a child, he is asked to do this and not to do other things. He has to follow certain beliefs and set of values which the family follows. His personality develops in the continuous process of interaction with his family environment.
Psychologists have interpreted adjustment from two important point of views. One, adjustment as an achievement and another, adjustment as a process. The first point of view emphasises the quality or efficiency of adjustment and the second lays emphasis on the process by which an individual adjusts in his external environment.
Meaning of Mental Health: Mental health is defined as a state or condition on which an individual feels a sense of well being. This gives him or her the capacity to live life in fulfilment of what he or she wants to achieve in accordance to the available resources. This also makes him productive and fruitful for himself and his community.
Mental health of the learner is very important for efficient learning and proper development of personality. A child is born in a home where he remains in the constant company of his mother in the formative years of his infancy. The infant should feel secure and loved in his home. Proper and conducive environment should be provided in early childhood. Pleasant and satisfaction giving experiences should be provided for the harmonious development of the personality of the child.
Concept of Mental Hygiene: Mental Hygiene deals with the mental health of the individual as physical hygiene is concerned with their physical health. Mental hygiene takes care of the prevention as well as treatment of mental illness, disorder and maladjustment. It also suggests ways and means of maintaining proper mental health and efficiency and therefore, help in the proper mental or intellectual growth and development of an. individual.
(1) The prevention of mental disorders through an understanding of the relationship that exists between wholesome personality development and life experiences.
(2) The preservations of the mental health of the individual and of the group.
(3) The discovery and utilization of therapeutic measures to cure mental illness.